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  2. 10 Job Skills That Will Help You Land a 6-Figure Salary
  3. Fewer new pilots
  4. Piloting Strategy: 5 Leadership Jobs Once Your Plan Is Done

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Above all, morale at both ABX and Atlas have plummeted. One Atlas pilot said he routinely has to ensure his coworkers are mentally sound enough to work. Pilots are almost universally unionized.

Even pilots at FedEx, whose labor force is not completely unionized, are in a union. Meanwhile, an ongoing pilot shortage has forced airlines across the spectrum to raise wages. But ATSG and Atlas Air pilots earn considerably less than their peers flying the same planes with the same years of experience at other companies. According to their union contracts, ABX and Atlas Air pilots have not received a raise in nearly a decade. The union contracts at ABX and Atlas have been amenable since , meaning they are still in effect but available to be negotiated.

Negotiations, which are reaching their fifth year, have been challenging, according to each pilot Business Insider spoke with. However, the ABX and Atlas contracts now in place were negotiated during the financial crisis, and pilots said the contract was "concessionary" in many ways. They allowed their pensions and healthcare matches to freeze, gave up vacation days, and took a pay cut.

Pilots said that was to save the airlines, which were financially struggling.

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Atlas Air had declared bankruptcy several years prior. His theory is that "there's no way around unions in airlines, which is why Amazon will continue to outsource this function. Outsourcing pilot labor to low-wage airliners is part of Amazon's strategy to keep its ever-increasing shipping costs low.

Amazon's worldwide shipping costs have grown fifteenfold from to Net sales increased by sevenfold in the same time. Amazon recently hit the headlines for ditching another third-party logistics company. It could be that cheap labor is the key thing keeping Amazon's air venture affordable. David Vernon, a Bernstein senior analyst and vice president, wrote in a December note that Amazon pilots' low wages allowed Amazon to carry goods more cheaply than UPS and FedEx airport to airport. But Amazon Air has problems with crew scheduling and operations "dis-synergies. But every pilot Business Insider spoke with said they suspect service disruptions are almost definitely coming.

ABX pilots already went on strike in late , though that was quickly struck down.

10 Job Skills That Will Help You Land a 6-Figure Salary

The plus pilots were ordered back to work when a judge said the matter needed to be resolved through arbitration and under the terms of the labor agreement between ABX and their union. Continued disruptions could cause issues for Amazon's plan to overhaul airfreight, Wulfraat said. Pilots who fly for Amazon. Ted S. One Atlas pilot who spoke on condition of anonymity said: "You have a whole bunch of morale issues. Guys are getting tired; they're getting sick. There's a lot of stress involved in it, too, because they're pushing everyone to their limit.

It's a matter of time before stuff stops moving or stops moving with any consistency.

Fewer new pilots

They're going to run out of people. Are you an insider with a story about Amazon? Contact me at rpremack businessinsider. Search icon A magnifying glass. It indicates, "Click to perform a search". Close icon Two crossed lines that form an 'X'. It indicates a way to close an interaction, or dismiss a notification. Rachel Premack. The cause of the crash remains unknown. In conversations with Business Insider before the crash, several pilots who fly planes for Amazon Air said they thought an accident was inevitable. Their schedules have been reduced and some, such as Republic, have been forced into bankruptcy as a result of inadequate staffing.

The industry has taken a few steps to address this problem. Regional airlines now offer much higher pay and even signing bonuses. Also, there have been some minor amendments to the 1,hour rule. Pilots can now receive their certificate in fewer than 1, hours if training takes place at certain flight schools. In my view, these steps alone will not solve this problem.

Young Steve Jobs on how to hire, manage, and lead people - MUST WATCH

Airlines need to consider forming their own pipeline. The airlines will need to begin recruiting and training their own pilot candidates.

For example, in April, American Airlines, where I used to work, announced the American Airlines Cadet Academy , with the intent of recruiting the next generation of pilots. Shah — Oxford, Aberdeenshire.

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A Modern Engineer — Edinburgh, Midlothian. Screen music and the question of originality - Miguel Mera — London, Islington.

Piloting Strategy: 5 Leadership Jobs Once Your Plan Is Done

Edition: Available editions United Kingdom. For many, the job of a pilot has lost its luster. Peter Gall , West Virginia University. Today, this is no longer the case. The career of the airline pilot has lost its luster. Fewer new pilots Meanwhile, the number of pilots supplied by the military has dwindled. Growing demand The other side of the shortage problem is that demand for well-trained pilots is actually increasing. You might also like Classic traffic jam in the airplane aisle. Detailed digital forensics could help make everyone safer online.

Validity is a technical term that has to do with the accuracy and relevance of measurements. Since the validity of performance appraisals is a critical issue to measurement specialists and a basic concern to practitioners who must withstand legal challenges to their performance appraisal tools and procedures, we are presenting the following discussion of validation strategies and how they apply to the examination of performance appraisal.

Cronbach describes validation as an ''inquiry into the soundness of an interpretation. He makes the point that challenge to a proposition or hypothesis is as important as the collection of evidence supporting the interpretation. Within this framework, the researcher is continually recognizing rival hypotheses and testing them—the result is a greater understanding of the inferences that can be made about the characteristics of the individuals who take a test or who are measured on a performance appraisal scale.

If the discussion seems rarified thus far, a practical example drawn from one of the biggest success stories of the measurement tradition—testing to select aircraft crew members during World War II—may be of interest. In an article with the pithy title "Validity for What," Jenkins describes the development and use of a test to select pilots, navigators, and bombardiers. For each position, military psychologists found that those who scored well on the test were also the most successful in technical training, so the test was put into use to select aircrews.

Several years into the war, uneasiness with the hit ratios on bombing runs led to Jenkins's follow-up study, which revealed that scores on the selection test, though they predicted success in bombardier training, were not correlated with success in hitting the target—and this, ultimately, was the performance of greatest interest. Although these strategies often have been treated as separate in the past, current thinking emphasizes that validation should integrate information from all approaches Landy, ; Wainer and Braun, ; Cronbach, Content validation gives confidence in a test or measure by exploring the match between the content of the measure and the content of the job e.

Criterion-related validation demonstrates statistically the relationships between people's scores on a measurement instrument and their scores on the performance of interest e. This is an important way of providing scores with meaning. For example, if a company finds that job applicants who score 8 on an entry test usually get positive supervisor ratings or are likely to be the ones chosen for promotion at the end of a probationary period, whereas those who score 4 are far less likely to, the scores of 4 and 8 begin to take on some meaning.

The search for construct validity is an attempt to get at the attribute that makes some individuals score 4 and others 8. Cronbach views construct validation as a continuous process. He states: "An interpretation is to be supported by putting many pieces of evidence together. Positive results validate the measure and the construct simultaneously.

Failure to confirm the claim leads to a search for a new measuring procedure or for a concept that fits the data better. The first is convergent evidence, which shows that the measure in question is related to the other measures of the same construct. In psychological testing there are many tests or parts of tests that purport to measure the same construct. The second form of evidence is discriminant validity, which shows that a given measure of a construct has a weak relationship with measures of other constructs.

Discriminant validity, according to Angoff , is a stronger test of construct validity than is convergent validity because discriminant validity implies a challenge from rival hypotheses. Recently, psychometricians have expanded the view of construct validity to include evidence of content and criterion validity as well as other sources of evidence that serve to test hypotheses about the underlying nature of a construct. This expanded definition provides the opportunity for introducing a variety of forms of evidence to test validity.

Content Evidence In performance appraisal, a determination of the content validity of the appraisal has been based on the type of analysis used in developing the appraisal instrument. If detailed job analyses or critical incident techniques were used and behaviorally based scales were developed, it has been generally assumed that the appraisal instruments have content validity.